Headquartered in Arlington, Va.| Official Web site
The U.S. Army, originally the American Continental Army, was established by the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775, more than a year before the Declaration of Independence was signed. The Department of War was established as an executive department at the seat of government Aug. 7, 1789 (1 Stat. 49). The secretary of war was established as its head. The National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401) created the National Military Establishment, and the Department of War was designated the Department of the Army. The war secretary became secretary of the Army (5 U.S.C. 171). The National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 578) provided that the Department of the Army be a military department within the Department of Defense.
The Army's mission is to organize, train and equip active-duty and reserve forces for the preservation of peace, security and the defense of the United States. The Army focuses on land operations; its soldiers must be trained with modern arms and equipment and be ready to respond quickly. The Army also administers programs aimed at protecting the environment, improving waterway navigation, flood and beach erosion control, and water resource development. It provides military assistance to federal, state and local government agencies, including natural-disaster relief.
The Army secretary is the senior official of the Department of the Army. Subject to the direction, authority and control of the U.S. president and the defense secretary, the Army secretary is responsible for and has the authority to conduct all affairs of the Department of the Army, including its organization, administration, operation, efficiency and such other activities as may be prescribed by the president or the defense secretary as authorized by law.
Presided over by the chief of staff, the Army Staff is the military staff of the Army secretary. It is the duty of the Army Staff to perform the following functions:
* Prepare for deployment of the Army and for such recruiting, organizing, supplying, equipping, training, mobilizing and demobilizing of the Army as will assist the execution of any power, duty or function of the secretary or the chief of staff.
* Investigate and report upon the efficiency of the Army and its preparation for military operations.
* Act as the agent of the Army secretary and the chief of staff in coordinating the action of all organizations of the Department of the Army.
* Perform such other duties not otherwise assigned by law as may be prescribed by the Army secretary.
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